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Memory is a problem for most learners with literacy difficulties, particularly dyslexic-type learners.  There are several key aspects:

Visual memory

Weaknesses in visual memory affect the development of sight vocabulary.  Learners in this category need significantly more exposure to text to fix words in to their long-term memory.  Research indicates that a non-dyslexic learner only needs 4 – 10 exposures to a word to fix it into long-term memory, whereas a dyslexic learner may need 500 – 1300 exposures.

Auditory memory

There are two key aspects to this.  Auditory sequential memory is the ability to remember a sequence of items/pieces of information.  Working memory is the ability to retain information and simultaneously process it (as is necessary for taking notes).

Memory for information

This is obviously linked with the above aspects, but specifically refers to the ability to remember information such as verbal instructions or reading/listening comprehension questions.

Most of the activities on Steps develop memory in some way or other, since they are providing reinforcement of the words or spelling patterns.  However, there are specific activities which prioritise memory skills.

How does Steps develop Memory?

In addition to the activities below, Steps incorporates automatic revision.  On all of the course options, the computer has a revision unit, which automatically analyses the learner’s errors in the previous 3 or 4 units and creates an individualized revision module.

Spelling – word memory, phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, visual memory, visual sequencing
Spelling Test - phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, visual memory, visual sequencing
Drop – visual sequencing, visualization, visual memory
Fireworks (game) – visual discrimination, tracking, pattern recognition, visual sequencing
Alphabet Order – tracking, visual discrimination, sequencing, working memory
Word Grid – auditory sequential memory, working memory
Hangman (game) – ability to sequence letters and predict word structure
Letter Chunks (general section) – alphabet sequencing, including reverse sequencing
Number Chunks (general section) – number sequencing, including reverse sequencing
Number Grid (general section) – auditory sequential memory, working memory
Word Memory – auditory sequential and working memory


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