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Phonic knowledge is the understanding of letter/sound correspondence.  In other words, it refers to the learner understanding which letter(s) make which sounds.  The learner can then use that knowledge and phonological awareness to encode (spell) and decode (read) regular words.

The ability to acquire and apply phonic knowledge depends on satisfactory phonological awareness, but both can be developed together.  It is important to incorporate activities which only process sounds or sound patterns, and also activities which they teach the learner to ‘map’ those soundsonto letters or letter patterns.

Vowel Ladder.png

How does Steps develop Phonic Knowledge?

Chunks – onset + rime awareness
Word Building – onset + rime awareness
Initial Sounds – onset + rime awareness, phoneme transposition
Sound Tiles – phonemic awareness + phonic knowledge
Sound Boxes – phonemic awareness + phonic knowledge
Spelling – phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, visual memory, sequencing
Spelling Test - phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, visual memory, sequencing
Vowel Sounds (game) – phonemic awareness, auditory discrimination and phonic knowledge
Clear the Skies (game) – phonemic awareness, auditory discrimination and phonic knowledge
Vowel Ladder (game) – phonemic awareness, auditory discrimination, phonic knowledge, blending, decoding/encoding skills
Alphabet (General Section) – phonic knowledge, phonemic awareness
Spelling (General Section) – auditory discrimination, phonemic awareness, decoding/encoding skills

References

Anderson, R. C. (1992). Research foundations for wide reading. Paper commissioned by the World Bank. Urbana, IL: Center for the Study of Reading.
Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading. In P.D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 255-291). New York: Longman.
American Federation of Teachers (1999). Building on the best, learning from what works: seven promising reading and English language arts programs. Washington DC. In http://www.aft.org/edissues/whatworks/index.htm.
Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R. & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Road to the Code. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., & Kameenui, E. J. (1997). Direct instruction reading (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
Juel, C. (1991). Beginning reading. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 759-788). New York: Longman.
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.
Kame'enui, E. J. & Simmons, D. C. (1990). Designing instructional strategies: The prevention of academic learning problems. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.
Kame'enui, E. J., & Simmons, D. C. (2000). Planning and evaluation tool for effective schoolwide reading programs. Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.
Kame'enui, E. J., Carnine, D. W., Dixon, R. C., Simmons, D. C., & Coyne, M. D. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kame'enui, E. J., Simmons, D. C., Baker, S., Chard, D. J., Dickson, S. V., Gunn, B., Smith, S. B., Sprick, M., & Lin, S. J. (1997). Effective strategies for teaching beginning reading. In E. J. Kame'enui, & D. W. Carnine (Eds.), Effective Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse Learners. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H., III (1998). Assessing early literacy skills in a problem-solving model: Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. In M. R. Shinn (Eds.), Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement. New York: Guildford.
Kaminski, R. A., & Good, R. H., III (1996). Toward a technology for assessing basic early literacy skills. School Psychology Review, 25(2), 215-227.
Liberman, I. Y., & Liberman, A. M. (1990). Whole language vs. code emphasis: Underlying assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 40, 51-76.
Nagy, W., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19, 304-330.
Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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